LN324-91

                             CHAPTER VIII

                    INTERROGATION PHASE/TECHNIQUES


INTRODUCTION:

     The interrogation phase/techniques for questioning have a very unique
value because they will cover all the interrogatives. The ability to ask
questions is as important as the investigation that is being carried out.
Without a good knowledge of how to address his questions, many times valuable
intelligence information could be lost or answers are given that are contrary
to what the source provided.

GENERAL:

     a.    Usually, the interrogation phase/questioning techniques starts
when the source starts answering questions pertinent to the specific
objectives of the interrogation/interview.

     b.    The questions must be sufficiently comprehensive to ensure that
the subject of interest has been completely exploited.

     c.    All the answers obtained from the Source must established the
basic interrogatives which are:

           (1)  Who
           (2)  What
           (3)  When
           (4)  Where
           (5)  Why
           (6)  How

     d.    All your questions must be presented in a logical sequence in
order to be sure that the significant topics or objectives have not been
neglected.

     e.    Frequently a series of questions are used, following a
chronological sequence of events, but it is by no means the only logical
method of making an interrogation.

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           (3)  Non Pertinent Questions:

                (a)   Non pertinent questions are those that have nothing to
do the with objectives of the interrogation/interview. When pertinent que non-
pertinent questions are carefully mixed, the Special Agent [SA] could hide

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LN324-91 the real purpose of the investigation and make the Source believe that a relatively insignificant matter is the basis for the interrogation/interview by asking pertinent questions in a casual manner. For example: * Emphasizing questions and details that are not important. * Dwelling on non-pertinent topics that the Source seems unwilling to discuss. (b) One of the techniques for which non-pertinent questions are used is to make the source relax, and then go back to pertinent questions in order to obtain the information desired. (c) Another use for non-pertinent questions is to break the "train of thought" of the source. This is particularly important if there is suspicion that the source is lying. Always have in mind that the Train of Though is an effort by the Source to concentrate possibly to come up with a lie. The SA could break the concentration by introducing suddenly a completely unrelated question, and afterwards returning to the pertinent topic. (4) Repeated Questions: (a) The repeated questions are used as a means to ensure precision, particularly when the SA suspects that the Source is lying. (b) One of the techniques is to repeat the same question in another way or disguised. (c) The repeated questions also are useful to ensure precision in the details, such as places, names, dates, team components and similar topics. (5) Direct or tricky questions: (a) The way you express the questions have a direct relationship with the response of the Source. A question can be made in different ways. Example: "Where did you go last night?" "Did you go last night to general headquarters?" "You did go to general headquarters last night?" "Didn't you go to general headquarters last night?" (b) The first example (where did you go last night?) is a direct and simple question that requires a narrative answer. This type of question usually produces the maximum amount of information and provides a great number of leads that can be followed or exploited by the SA. 89
LN324-91 (c) The other three examples are tricky questions in that they are suggesting the answer. (d) Tricky questions tend to suggest the source the response that he thinks the SA wants to know, and also limits the number of- details given in the answer. (e) As a general rule, the tricky questions are not good for the purpose of interrogation/interview, but could be used efficiently as a means of verification, means of strategy, or as a means of pointing out with precision at specific details. (6) Combined Questions: (a) Combined questions are those that contain more than one question. This type of questions should be avoided because they could be evaded easily and sometimes are difficult to understand. For example: "What kind of training did you receive at the basic training center of the enemy forces, and what kind of training did you receive afterwards at the advanced training center of the enemy forces?" (b) As you have noted in the above example, the source may answer only one, both or none of the questions, and the answer given may be ambiguous, incomplete or both. (7) Negative Questions: (a) Negative questions are those that confuse and give deceiving or false answers. This type of question could suggest two answers. For example: "Don't you know whether Colón went to General Headquarters last night? (b) If the SA is not aware of the negative question, with all probability he will extract an answer that the source never wanted to give. (8) Precise and Brief Questions: (a) All questions should be precise, brief and to the point. There should be no doubt in the mind of the source of what the SA wants to know. This type of question is identical to the direct question and limit the level of the Train of Thought of the Source since it should require a narrative response. (9) Questions Expressed Simply: 90
LN324-91 (a) The SA must use simple questions. Avoid convoluted words (words whose meaning other persons might not know). (10) Reinforcement Questions: (a) The reinforcement questions are those used to impart emphasis at a certain point of the interrogation/interview. During the interrogation/interview the SA must remain alert to detect and exploit the statements by the Source that indicate that he has valuable intelligence information, besides the one which is pursued in the present interrogation/interview. 3. Information from Rumors: (1) Rumors can provide valuable information. However, rumor must be classified as rumors. 4. Conclusions: (1) The last step of the interrogation/interview is to obtain any additional conclusions, statements, remarks or evaluations of a specially qualified source. (2) When the SA receives such information, he must also obtain the facts on which the source based his conclusions and/or evaluations. 5. Interrogation/questioning techniques Phase a. The interrogation/questioning techniques phase is what "truly makes a Special Agent" since it would be worthless to have an excellent "planning and preparation" and a wonderful "approach plan" if the "Interrogation/Questioning Techniques Phase" is not exploited to the maximum advantage in order to obtain the greatest intelligence information possible. b. Types of Interrogations/Interviews: The SA usually follows two general rules (the direct or indirect interrogatory/interview). The essential difference between the two lies on whether the source knows or does not know that he is being interrogated/interviewed. c. The Direct Interrogation/Interview: When we use the direct interrogation/interview, the source is conscious of being interrogated/interviewed, but knows or does not know the real objective of the interrogation/interview. d. Advantages of the Direct Method: (1) Consumes less time. 91
LN324-91 (2) Easier to carry out (nothing to hide) (3) Allows the SA to make continuous verifications of the information that he is receiving from the source. e. Disadvantages (1) The source does not want to be a stool pigeon. (2) He is afraid for his life (or his comrades') (3) Thinks that he can obtain something in exchange for the information offered (his own benefit). f. Indirect Interrogatory/Interview: This form of interrogation/interview is characterized by getting information through deceit and trickery without the source knowing that he is being interrogated. g. Advantages: (1) The information extracted is almost always true (no reason to lie.) (2) It is useful for extracting information (even) from the most difficult sources. (3) It serves for exploiting a big human weakness (the desire to talk). h. Disadvantages (1) A great deal of skill is needed. (2) It consumes too much time and personnel. (3) We do not know really whether the source really wants to cooperate/confess everything. 5. Use of techniques: a. Have in mind that both types of interrogation/interview can be used at the tactical as well as strategic level. b. Determining factors for the direct interrogation/interview: (1) Very limited time (TACTICAL LEVEL) (2) To use for immediate operation 92
LN324-91 (3) SA does not have much training c. Determining factors for indirect interrogation/interview: (1) Said operation/mission does not have immediate tactical importance. (2) The goal to be attained is at strategic level. Example: To know the enemy capabilities to sustain hostilities for long periods of time. 6. Selection of the Source: a) The criteria for the selection of personnel to be interrogated/interviewed could vary for innumerable reasons: 1) Time limitations 2) SA availability 3) Skills of the Ae (who in general serve as selecting officers). 4) Quality and quantity of information that the sources could have. 93