LN324-91

                              CHAPTER XIV

           INTRODUCTION TO SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE AGAINST
                       THE ARMED FORCES (SEAAF)

INTRODUCTION:

     The knowledge about subversion and espionage against the Armed Forces
(SEAAF) has a very important role for counter intelligence agents. The counter
intelligence agent must recognize the weaknesses generally sought by a hostile
agent and use these weaknesses to get valuable information about the Armed
Forces. When the espionage agent of the counter intelligence does not identify
these weaknesses he has lost the first battle which is to avoid the collection
of intelligence information. (COUNTER-INTELLIGENCE).

GENERAL FACTS:

     a.    The term "SEAAF" means subversion and espionage against the Armed
Forces. A SEAAF incident or a contact is an effort by a foreign intelligence
agent to get information, classified or non-classified, using you as the
source to obtain the information.

     b.    First we must have knowledge of the two key SEAAF words which are
espionage and subversion.

     1.    Espionage. Generally, espionage is the act to obtain, give,
transmit, communicate or receive information regarding the national defense
with the intent or purpose to believe that this information will be used to
harm the national government and to the benefit or advantage of the foreign
country. Likewise we must keep in mind the following when we talk about
espionage terms:

     a.    Any person or persons in legal, illegal possession, access or
control over or he is receiving information regarding the national defense
which the person in possession believes such information could be used to harm
the national defense and to the benefit or advantage of a foreign country,
voluntarily communicates, transmits, or intents to communicate or transmit
such information to any non-authorized person, is guilty of the act of
espionage.













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LN324-91 b. Any person or persons in charge of having legal possession and control over national defense information who by their own negligence allows the same to be lost, stolen, misplaced, destroyed, or removed from the safekeeping place or gives such information in violation of faith, trust, and responsibility, is guilty of an espionage act. 2. Subversion. Generally, the elements of subversion are: (a) Actively induce the military and civilian personnel of the defense forces to violate laws, disobey legal orders or rules and behavior regulations or to interrupt military activities. NOTE: "To actively induce" is defined as advising, alerting or requesting in any manner that causes or intents to cause the acts mentioned above. This includes the distribution or intent to distribute the written material that alerts, advises, or requests. (b) The voluntary intent to intercept, or diminish the loyalty, moral or discipline of the defense forces. (c) The subversion acts occur during war time or during peace time. (d) The subversion includes all the voluntary acts with the intent to harm the interest of the national government and that do not fit the categories of treason, insurrection, sabotage or espionage. c. Having knowledge of the two SEAAF key words, we must recognize also the importance of the insurrection acts. 1. Insurrection. There are four types of specific activities which are taken place with the intention of overthrowing the government through force or violence are acts of insurrection. These four types are: (a) Training about the need to overthrow the government. 123
LN324-91 (b) The publication, sale or distribution of written material plotting or training to overthrow a government. (c) Organizing a society or group with the purpose of plotting or training to overthrow a government. (d) Members or initiation members or affiliation with this type of society knowing the purpose of such organization. d. An agent looks for weaknesses to trap, to see if you could be convinced, bribed, threatened, or trapped in a difficult or embarrassing situation so to make you work for him. He must realize some general weaknesses looked for by an agent. These are: (1) Doubts, financial problems and bad credit. (2) A criminal file or present criminal activities. (3) Homosexuality. (4) Immoral behavior, past or present. (5) Abuse of drugs or alcohol. (6) Marriage infidelity. (7) Routinely boasts and brags. (8) Mentally or emotionally unstable. (9) Going with persons of weak character. (10) Relatives or foreign friends. e. SEAAF/SAEDA incidents and situations you must report: 124
LN324-91 (1) Intents of non-authorized personnel to obtain classified or non- classified information about the facilities, activities, personnel or materiel of the armed forces using questioning techniques, seduction, threats, bribe or trapping a person in an embarrassing or difficult situation by personal contact, direct or indirect or by correspondence. (2) Intent of non-authorized personnel to obtain classified or non- classified information by photography, observation, collection of material or documents or any other means. (3) Intent by known persons, suspicious persons or with possible foreign intelligence history or associations. Intent to establish any type of friendship, association or business relationship. (4) Every incident where members of the defense forces, his relatives, travel by or to a foreign area of special consideration (figure 1) who are exposed to: (a) Questioning regarding their work. (b) Provide military information. (c) Bribe, threats or trapped in a difficult or embarrassing situation of any type so as to cooperate with the foreign intelligence services. (5) Incidents known, suspicious, or possible acts of espionage that result or resulted in danger to documents, information or classified material. (6) Other acts by members of the armed forces to involve, intent or consider the communication of classified information, documents or material to a non-authorized person. (7) Non-official contact by members of the defense force with: a. Personnel they know or suspect are members of a security service or foreign intelligence. 125
LN324-91 b. Foreign political or military organization. c. Any member of the countries mentioned in figure #1. (8) Official contact with personnel mentioned in paragraph #7 when these persons: a. Show knowledge or curiosity about members of the defense forces. b. Intent to obtain classified or non-classified information from a member of the defense forces. c. Intent to establish any type of friendship or business relationship with members of the defense forces outside the official tasks of the defense forces. (9) Information regarding with international terrorism plans which present a direct threat to personnel, activities, facilities or material. (10) Known acts or suspicious acts to harm or destroy property of the armed forces by sabotage acts. f. What you must do if you suspect to have come in contact or someone made contact to obtain information: (1) Do not deny or accept to cooperate. Ask for some time to think about the proposition. (2) Remember the person's details. Try to remember things as the description of the person, the place and circumstances of the meeting, identification or description of the vehicle. NOTE: Do not try to ask the suspect for more information or suggest another meeting in the future. This, may surprise the agent. (3) Report the contact to the counter intelligence agency. If you cannot contact them, contact the S2 or an intelligence official and tell them about the details of the contact. If you are travelling to another country or abroad, report the contact to the closest consulate of your country or to the office of the Defense (military) Attache. 126
LN324-91 (4) Do not investigate the matter by your own efforts. Let the investigation up to the qualified counter intelligence agents. Do not tell the contact events to anyone except the departments mentioned above. Figure 1 GEOGRAPHIC AREAS OF SPECIFIC CONSIDERATION Afghanistan Albania Angola Bulgaria Cambodia Republic of China and its adjacent islands Cuba Czechoslovakia Ethiopia German Democratic Republic (Communist Germany) Hungary Iran Iraq Laos Lebanon Arab Republic of Libya North Korea and adjacent demilitarized zones Nicaragua Republic of Mongolia Poland Democratic Republic of Yemen Romania Soviet Sector of Berlin Syria Soviet Union Vietnam Yugoslavia 127