LN324-91

                              CHAPTER XXVIII

                                 TERRORISM

INTRODUCTION:

      In this chapter you may describe terrorism, the phases of the conflict under
low intensity, who were the terrorists, the characteristics of the terrorist
operations, the terrorist organization, the arms used by the terrorists, the
security methods of the terrorist's groups.

GENERAL FACTS:

QUESTIONS TO BE COVERED IN THIS CHAPTER:

1.    What are the phases of the low intensity conflict?

2.    How is terrorism defined?

3.    Who are the terrorists?

4.    What are the characteristics of the terrorist's or rebel's operations?

5.    How is the organization of a terrorist's movement?

6.    What are the methods to provide security to a terrorist organization?

7.    What arms are used by the terrorists?

8.    What are some of the targets that are most attacked by terrorists?

9.    What are some of the most common terrorist activities ?

10.   What is the terrorist's goal?









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LN324-91 BASIC DATA ABOUT TERRORISM AND REBELLION THE REBELLION OR CONFLICT PHASES OF LOW INTENSITY: 1. PHASE I: (Latent or Incipient Insurrection) This phase rotates between the circumstances of the subversive activities is only a potential, latent or incipient threat, and situations in which the subversive incidents and activities occur frequently and in an organized way. This does not include a violent burst of activity or chaotic activity. a. EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES THAT COULD BE CARRIED OUT IN PHASE I: 1) The rebels starting from a relatively weak position, plan and organize their campaign and select urban or rural areas of objectivity. 2) The open or clandestine organizations are established. If the insurrection party is ilegal, the organizations will be clandestine. 3) Psychological operations are carried out WITH the purpose of exploiting complaints and people's wishes. 4) Then the organization starts WITH a ghost government. 5) Once the party is established, they concentrate in gaining the influence of the population and infiltrating in the government, economic and social organizations, and in presenting a threat to the administrative ability of the government. 6) During the last stage of Phase I the importance of recruiting, organizing and training the armed elements is emphasized. 7) The police forces are attacked, other activities terrorist (groups) and some other military operations of less importance to try to influence additionally over the population, or to provide arms for the movement and confronting the government's ability to keep peace and order. 2. PHASE II: (Guerrilla warfare) This phase is reached once the subversive movement has gained sufficient local and external support and starts to conduct an organized guerrilla warfare, or forms of violence against the established authority. 259
LN324-91 a. EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES THAT COULD BE CARRIED OUT DURING PHASE II: 1) Phase I is continued and expanded. The rebel's political and military control is intensified over the territory and the population. 2) Guerrilla warfare is used in a great scale and in some areas a limited defense is mounted. 3) According to what the situation allows a rebel's government is organized in areas they dominate, and in areas that have yet to be under their control. 4) The most important military goal is the control of the greatest area. The rebels try to understand the government troops in static defense and interdiction operations and they try to destroy the communications lines and take or destroy the government's supplies and resources. 3. PHASE III: (Movement war) The situation advances from Phase II to Phase III when the insurrection has mainly changed to a movement war between the organized rebel's forces and the government forces. a. EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES THAT COULD BE CARRIED OUT DURING PHASE III: 1) The activities that were initiated in Phases I and II, are continued and increased. 2) The largest units in size are used to combat the government forces and gain key geographic and political objectives that will help overthrow the government forces. 3) If the rebels try to win the military sector over and the government is overthrown, immediately they will initiate their consolidation activities. This includes removing the potential enemies, establishing additional control mechanisms and the re-structuring of society. 260

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LN324-91 (4) Additional information and summary of the terrorist's personality: In general, a terrorist is a determined person who thinks that he or she is participating in a dynamic political process but that cannot distinguish the difference between the actions and moral principles; to them the objectives justify the tactics. The true terrorist is not a crazy fanatic as is commonly thought. They are hard-working persons that are prepared to give their lives for the cause. Most terrorists desire to live to see that their goals are fulfilled or carried out; to attain that objective they use persons WITH mental problems (crazy people) or common criminals to carry out risky missions such as murders. b. AGE: In general the age of a terrorist is between twenty and thirty years of age. For the local groups is even adolescents. The leaders of any type of organization is commonly older (58, 40, 35). c. SEX: For the most part in the terrorists' history, they have been predominantly males. During a period of a decade (1966 to 1976), 80% of the operations were addressed and executed by men. The role of a woman in those times was to recount (collect) intelligence, such as messengers, nurses, and the operation of safe houses. From that era on there was a dramatic change in the feminine participation in the terrorist acts. At present, the greatest part of the terrorists are still men, but WITH a great women participation. The participation of women in terrorist movements is due in part, to social changes, female liberation and youth's rebelliousness. d. CIVIL STATUS: The greatest part of the terrorist organizations have a majority of single members. The accepted general figure is between 75-80% single. This reflects that marriage is considered as an operational problem for the group. Frequently the members of a terrorist group that are married break up WITH their family once they find themselves convinced in their group's beliefs and they follow them. e. ORIGIN: The urban metropolitan areas constitute the source of the greatest part of the terrorist numbers. 262
LN324-91 f. SOCIO-ECONOMIC HISTORY: Normally they come from liberal party member parents. There is a preponderance of professionals, such as lawyers and doctors, but the other occupations include clergy, business executives, diplomats, government employees, police and members of the armed forces. The terrorist groups usually come from middle and high classes. g. EDUCATION AND OCCUPATION: There is a vast majority of students and intellectuals within the revolutionary movements and their directors. The majority of the leaders have received some university education or have taken higher education courses and then some. The social and humanity degrees seem to attract many; the students rarely come up as leaders, but the universities are a field for the revolutionary movements. h. RECRUITMENT: The universities play an prominent role in the recruitment of terrorists. They introduce anarchist and marxists doctrines and many of the student federations are controlled by radicals. The jail adds another element, although it does not play such an important role as the university's. i. RELIGION: The terrorist tend to be atheists, devoted to violence. This does not mean that all terrorist are atheists. In Latin America's case, the catholic priest's and the nuns have carried out active roles in the terrorist operations of both sectors. 263
LN324-91 COMPARISON BETWEEN THE TWO CATEGORIES OF TERRORISTS: NATIONALIST IDEOLOGICAL [millennium-oriented] Personality: Educated leader Same, preponderance of Idealist socially unadjusted youth Activist Age: From adolescence In their twenties, thirties to the 30's (leaders in their 40's) Sex: Masculine (a few activeDivided almost 50% ones from the feminine sex)women have very active roles. Civil Status: Single Single Origin: Metropolitan area Metropolitan areas Socio-economic Low and middle class Middle and higher classes history: (leaders middle to high classes) Education and Varies greatly University and Professional Occupation (Leaders are professionals) Recruitment Varies greatly in cities City, University, Prisons Religion Varies greatly None 264
LN324-91 TWO MAIN TERRORIST CATEGORIES: WITH the considerable changes that have taken place during the last twenty years, there has come into play two main terrorist categories: a. Nationalist: They take power or cause a national revolution. The control of specific territory is their common denominator. These groups have as principal goal to take a territory as a sovereign entity. They have objectives defined in a short term and frequently make do in a practical manner to attain them. b. Ideological: Revolutionaries and anarchists of an indefinite ideology that try to destroy the existing system. As a general rule they try to avoid to arouse any definite substitute government because this tends to divide the organization through dissention. METHODS OF OPERATION: Terrorist operations are being carried out in a professional manner and are executed by well-trained specialized clandestine elements, particularly by international groups. The terrorist organizations are becoming bureaucratic institutions and their members are specializing in diverse areas. There is evidence of one transnational affiliation and assistance between the groups. The terrorist groups generally operate as clandestine organizations. a. To avoid penetration and information loss about the organization, operations, techniques and plans, groups practice strict security measures. A leader is designated and guided about the mission and the support requirements. b. Procuring even more security, frequently the members of the team do not meet but until the last rehearsal and shortly before leaving towards the place where the mission will take place. In such manner, the members of the team and the support personnel will not know the location of the target until it is necessary to carry out the mission. The identity of each member of the team will be kept in secret, even from the member themselves, by using names and false identification. 265
LN324-91 c. To increase security, a special intelligence team will carry out a detailed search of the area or the target. To increase the security even more, many targets that have been recognized will not be attacked by a reason or other, so the fact that a search has taken place does not mean that the target will be attacked. Additionally, to make the hamper or prevent the detection, they plan a greater number of attacks than they will actually carry out. d. Urban local groups carry out their operations as an initiative of their local cells or their movement's central command. e. Terrorists normally look to exploit the vulnerabilities, attacking targets that have a weak security stand. Terrorist operations are characterized by: "THE VIOLENCE", "SPEED", AND "SURPRISE". Terrorists reduce their own vulnerabilities to reduce the risk of the operation. If the original target is well protected, they take into consideration the degree of risk and vulnerability of the group, select another target. This does not mean that terrorist groups will not attack a high security target and risk a suicide mission if they think that could be the last resource. TERRORISTS TARGETS: The terrorists targets are generally of two types: Symbolic or pragmatic. Targets that could serve both purposes are selected if they are available. Targets are more symbolic when terrorists are weak and vulnerable. As the movement grows, targets are more pragmatic. The definition of the two types of targets is as follows: a. SYMBOLIC TARGETS: Symbolic targets are normally prominent members of a regime or an institution. The terrorist's acts against the target are committed in highly visible places to attract the greatest degree of attention possible and they serve as principal instrument to reduce the trust, inflict fear and provoke the repression of the latter psychological use by the movement. b. PRAGMATIC TARGETS: Pragmatic targets include multinational corporation executives, key members of the opposition, whose selection has the purpose of coercing the group's objective so as to support the movement; to obtain resources, such as, money, supplies and arms. 266

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LN324-91 TERRORIST ACTIVITIES: The activities of the terrorist groups include: a. Murders b. Bombs (including the use of letters and explosive packages, and fire bombs) c. Kidnapping and taking hostages d. Pre-meditated fires e. Ambushes f. Armed attacks g. Street tactics h. Robberies ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT TERRORISM: a. Terrorist goals: 1) Guide the masses not to support the government and support their movement. 2) Terrorism will give the urban insurgent a method to develop the potential for mass uprising and give the rural insurgent a method to oblige them to reduce the control of the government and to force them into the desired behavior. 3) These goals constitute the fundamental terrorist threat for governments. LOCAL LEVEL ORGANIZATIONAL CHART COMMAND INTELLIGENCE SUPPORT COMBAT SECTION SECTION ELEMENTS ________________ NATIONAL LEVEL ORGANIZATIONAL CHART COMMAND SUB-COMMAND SUB-COMMAND SUB-COMMAND INTELLIGENCE SUPPORT COMBAT SECTION SECTION SECTION 268