The purpose of this booklet is to present basic information on the
mission and activities of Counter Intelligence. But, with the understanding
that the primary mission is to support the commanders of the armed forces.
This booklet is dedicated to the concepts of Counter Intelligence in relation
with its functional areas, the application of these functions, and a specific
dedication and instructions on how to apply these functions. The terms
"special agent of Counter Intelligence" (SA) refers to all those persons who
conduct and contribute to the handling and gathering of information of the
multi-disciplinary intelligence of the hostile services. This booklet is
primarily oriented at those persons involved in the control and execution of
the operations of CI. In like manner, this booklet has a very significant
value for other members of the armed forces that function in the areas and
services of security and other departments of intelligence.
INTRODUCTION TO COUNTER INTELLIGENCE
Imagine a circle representing the effort of a total intelligence
conducted by all the agencies of the Armed Forces. Inside this overall field,
we find that counterintelligence is an integral part of the total intelligence
DEFINITION OF COUNTERINTELLIGENCE:
Counterintelligence is defined as the activity or activities
collectively organized by an intelligence service dedicated to obstruct the
enemy's source of information by means of concealment, codes, crypto,
censorship and other measures to deceive the enemy by using disinformation,
The two measures used by Counterintelligence are DEFENSIVE or OFFENSIVE:
Defensive measures vary normally with the mission of the unit. An
example of these measures are:
Intelligence consists of collection, transmission and dissemination of
military data referring to possible or real enemy and/or to an area of
operations. The military commander uses this intelligence in order to
formulate his possible course of action and to select a course of action in
particular in order to achieve the mission. Thus, the intelligence obtained is
of vital importance to the commander and for the conduct of his mission.
Intelligence is also essential for the enemy as it is for us. The enemy
also uses all sorts of measures at its disposal to become informed about our
capabilities, vulnerabilities and probable cause of action, and also
information about the meteorological conditions of the terrain.
Military Counter Intelligence is that part of Intelligence intended to
deprive the enemy of this knowledge, and in this manner prevent the enemy
activities of espionage, sabotage and subversion, as well as discover possible
acts of an adverse nature, treason, or sedition among our own military forces.
Counter Intelligence is a significant aspect in both the strategic
intelligence and combat, and is essential for the favorable application of two
of the nine basic principles of war: security and surprise. The principles of
Effective Counter Intelligence enhances the security and helps achieve
surprise. Surprise depends not only on the intelligence obtained and the speed
of movement, but also on the effective counter intelligence. Effort to prevent
the enemy from obtaining data, reducing the risk that the command can suffer,
provided it diminishes the enemy's capability of utilizing effectively its
potential of combat against our Armed Forces. Thus, effective counter
intelligence allows security of the unit.
Deception in combat is a military operation designed to conceal our
dispositions, capabilities and intentions and deceive the enemy in such a way
that it would be to his disadvantage and to our advantage.
Deception is designed to derail or deceive the enemy through
manipulation, disinformation, or falsifying of evidence in order to induce a
reaction in a way that is detrimental to his own interest.
In order for a deception operation to be successful, the enemy has to
have the capability of collecting information that we would like him to get,
so that we can react according to the information.
The enemy is given the opportunity to obtain information, and thus
creating a deceptive picture. At the same time, counter intelligence goes into
action in order to prevent the enemy from discovering the true purpose of the
operation of deception and to avoid recognition of the true technical
operation or the principle one, which is being supported by the deceptive
operation mainly security.
QUESTION: Why can we consider a soldier as a counter intelligence
ANSWER: An individual solder is an agent of the CI, since he can provide
information on the activities of the intelligence of the enemy, including
subversion. Much of the CI operations depends on the individual soldiers
ability to adequately fulfill the security procedures, camouflage, observation
and information system.
As a prisoner of war, the individual soldier is a soldier of operational
information of the enemy. Therefore, the individual soldier receives training
in the measures of escape and invasion, in case he is taken prisoner or that
he finds himself behind enemy lines. Also he receives training to resist the
interrogations of the enemy and adhere to his rights as a prisoner of war
under the Geneva Convention.
All the units are agents of the CI and they too take measures of CI in
order to deprive the enemy intelligence on our activities, operations and
locations of this positions.
Every officer of the high command and every subordinate command in
effect acts as a Counter Intelligence officer of the Joint High Command. For
example, the transport officer aids the command with the Counter Intelligence
aspects regarding the movement of transport; the health chief accesses the
Counter Intelligence aspect regarding the location of the health
Some units, such as the units of the censure, have special function of
CI because of the nature of their assigned missions. The CI agent of the Army
has the personal training as specialist in CI and is available for providing
support in all the military operations.
Other government agencies, such as the agencies of intelligence of the
Navy, the Air Force and the Defense Ministry, also use certain functions of CI
that support the CI operations of the Army.
Keep in mind that kind of intelligence is necessary in both times of
peace and war, since espionage, subversion and occasion sabotage are not only
limited to conditions of time of war. All foreign countries, both enemy and
friends, wish to obtain information regarding the Armed Forces, their assets,
disposition, weapons, level of training and future plans for operations peace
time as well as in time of war.
The range of the CI operation extends in proportion to the level of
At the division level the measure of CI generally have to do with
CI operations at higher levels are similar to those of the inferior
levels. Nevertheless, the operations have a broader range thanks to the
greater number of units in the scope of their areas with a great volume of
advance planning. The CI operations at superior levels include:
SECURITY OF PORTS, BORDERS AND TRAVEL
Generally speaking, Counter Intelligence is a main part of the
intelligence operation in the theater of operations.
Depriving the enemy of information regarding supplies, installations,
nuclear weapon systems, means of transport, communications is vital in
fulfillment of the mission in the zone of the theater of operations. The great
territorial responsibility of this zone require extensive operation of the CI
of all types.
QUESTION: IN THE MILITARY UNIT, WHAT ARE THE THINGS THAT INTEREST THE
ANSWER: Military information.
Equipment and installations.
As in all aspects of the military unit, the commanders are responsible
for the implementation and execution of all the measures of military Counter
Intelligence to protect military information, personnel, material and
installation within the unit.
The commander has his high command which can delegate the authority to
carry out these functions; nevertheless, the responsibility rests with the
The Counter Intelligence officer:
The auxiliary chief of the high command, C-2, is the officer of the high
command responsible for the military information which also includes Counter
Intelligence. This delegation of authority is given to the auxiliary chief of
the high command, C-2, who has under his charge and responsibility of the high
command regarding Central Intelligence and CI. The C-2 is responsible for the
implementation and direction of all the measures of CI inside the command.
The planning of military Counter Intelligence is based on ability or
capability of the enemy to obtain information regarding friendly activities.
This planning includes adequate CI countermeasures to prevent the enemy from
discovering the dispositions and activities that can reveal the intentions of
the command or, if interrupted, could endanger the accomplishment of the
According to the organization and the size of the command, there may be
a CI official of the high command of the C-2. At the division or brigade
level, the official of the CI normally is the chief of the section of security
or the detachment of military intelligence that supports the division of the
brigade. In other words, he wears two hats, as chief of the security section,
and as the CI officer of the joint high command of the C-2.
CATEGORIES OF CI OPERATION
Generally, there are five categories of operations of CI conducted
inside the theater of operation at which the C-2 is responsible or has direct
interest. The categories are:
HARBOR, BORDER AND TRAVEL SECURITY
The military security encompasses measures taken by the command to
protect itself from espionage, enemy civilians, supervision and sabotage and
surprise. These include passive CI measures and active ones inside the Armed
Forces and directly pertaining to the same and for specific military
operations. Examples of military securities are:
SECRECY DISCIPLINE: This is the indoctrination/training on a continuous
basis of all personnel against divulging of classified information that is not
authorized or unclassified regarding military activities, and the use of
patrol of security in areas frequented by military personnel.
SPECIAL PROTECTION OF CLASSIFIED MILITARY AND EQUIPMENT INFORMATION:
This is the observation of the security measures, such as the security
necessary inside the areas that contain information and classified equipment;
introduction of a system of passes for entering critical areas; the conduct of
studies in inspection of security to determine the strict observation of
prescribed security measures.
SECURITY OF TROOP MOVEMENT: This keeps a certain connection with the
secrecy discipline, preventing inappropriate comments by personnel in the unit
given an order for movement; in returning mail dispatches of the unit in a
certain period of time before the departure of the troops, and restricting all
personnel in the area of the unit.
COUNTER SUBVERSION INSIDE THE ARMED FORCES: This is the overcoming of
suppression of rumors and propaganda and the apprehension of subversive
THE TECHNICAL MEASURES AS REQUIRED IN THE COMBAT ZONES: This is the use
of the technical troops for the apprehension of the resistance groups, to help
reduce the intelligence subjective and the mop up operations of the guerilla
TRANSMISSION SECURITY: Listening to the administration communication
networks, command operation of intelligence.
SPECIAL HANDLING OF ESCAPEES AND EVADERS: This type of person needs to
be debriefed to obtain the immediate intelligence information. It is of great
importance to make sure that the escapee or evader is not an enemy agent.
CIVILIAN SECURITY: In all cases the mission of the military forces has
priority over the well being of the civilians in the area. Examples of the
civilian security measures are:
Systematic registering of the civilian personnel, including the neutral
foreigners and enemies: This is done by the civilian affairs agency and
includes the distribution of rationing cards, work permits, travel permits and
permits for crossing borders.
Control of the circulation of the civilian personnel and refugees: This
is a very important matter: All civilian personnel must be kept away from the
advance combat zones, which will help prevent their easily finding out about
our forces and inform enemy agents of espionage or sabotage. Also, all
civilian personnel is to be kept at a distance from the major route of supply
to make it easier for the military transport and prevent enemy agents from
infiltrating the military zone.
Curfew: Keeping the public away from the streets and routes after certain
hours, thus restricting the movements of enemy agents.
Surveillance of suspect political groups: One should find out whether
other groups are sympathetic to enemy cause. Such groups must always be
considered potential agents.
Investigation of workers security: Local workers employed by the Armed
Forces should be investigated to avoid infiltration of enemy agents in areas
and military units. This include the service personnel of the countryside,
truck drivers and current workers, and interpreters, translators, etc.
Distribution of passes and permits. Passes and permits should be
strictly controlled and reviewed frequently to avoid forgery. Passes and
permits for travel are normally distributed to government functionaries,
political agencies, doctors and workers of public services.
Control of international commerce: Control of commerce in neutral
states. Experience has proven that many commercial companies are in effect spy
agencies that use the company as a cover or front of their operation. The
profits from the trade of these companies can be and is used to pay for the
expenses of espionage operations.
Surveillance of consuls and neutral/high command diplomats: It is
possible that people of this category are using their diplomatic immunity to
act as couriers for an enemy country.
SECURITY OF HARBORS, BORDERS AND TRAVEL: Consists of special
applications of both the neutral security measures as well as civilians for
the control of Counter Intelligence in entry ports and ports of departure for
borders and international lines; all movements of. a non-military character,
of entry and departure in the theater of operations.
SECURITY CONTROL OF MARITIME HARBORS: This is the responsibility of the
Navy and control should be coordinated with the Navy.
SECURITY CONTROL OF AIRPORTS: This is the responsibility of the Air
Force and control should be coordinated with the Air Force.
ESTABLISHMENT OF CROSSING POINTS ON THE BORDER: Normal routes of
movement should be directed to points of crossing located strategically. These
points of crossing should be controlled by military personnel with the help of
local and national agencies as necessary.
SECURITY CONTROL OF THE MERCHANT MARINE AND THE CREWS OF COMMERCIAL
AIRCRAFT: This is important due to such individuals who by virtue of their
occupation can enter and depart legally and frequently from the country and
such individuals can be used as pretext for carrying out fraud operations
INVESTIGATION OF SECURITY AND CONTROL OF PERSONS WHO LIVE AT THE
BORDERS: Personnel in this category, for example, the farmers who live at the
border and the entire front can be on the border, personnel living on one side
of the border and working on the other side.
CONTROL OF DISEMBARKATION PASSES AND PASSES FOR LANDING, AND FISHING
PERMITS: The fishing boats and small craft of a similar nature that operate in
very shallow water and thus have the capability of landing enemy agents at any
point on the coast of the country where the military operations take place.
CENSORSHIP: Censorship is the control and elimination of communication
with a double purposes: First, to avoid the transmission of information that
can be of interest in helping the enemy; and secondly, to collect and
propagate valuable information in the service of intelligence that helps the
war effort. The term communication includes all types of postal material,
regardless of class;, means of electrical communication and any other tangible
form of communication that can be carried by a person, carried in luggage, or
among personal effects or in any other way can be transmitted from the area
where the censorship is taking place.
THERE ARE FOUR TYPES OF CENSORSHIP IMPLEMENTED DURING WAR CONDITIONS
Censorship of the Armed Forces: This censorship is the control and
examination of all communications sent and received by personnel under the
jurisdiction of the Armed Forces, which include assigned military personnel,
the civilians that can be employed and added to the same. This includes all
war correspondents, representatives of the Red Cross and technical
representatives of the factories.
Civilian Censorship: The civilian censorship is the control and
examination of all communication of the national and civilian population of
the common goal and transit or circulate in a territory which cannot be
liberated, occupied or controlled by the Armed Forces.
Press Censorship: Press censorship is a division of the security of the
news material and other media that are used, including maintenance of
security. This applies primarily to the work that is done by the war
correspondents, radio commentators and press photographers, and also includes
any material prepared on a possible location by the personnel under the
jurisdiction of the Armed Forces.
Censorship of Prisoners or War: Censorship of prisoners of war is
control and examination of the political communication of the prisoners of war
and the civilian detainees under the jurisdiction of the Armed Forces.
SPECIAL OPERATIONS: The final category is the special operations.
Operations that come under this category will be discussed and planned
according to the specifications of the commander in keeping with the planning
within the SOP of CI.