CHAPTER XXII



     The CI (espionage) agent in combat could only have a minimum amount of
information with which to conduct the work or have minimum knowledge of the
situation and the area. In spite of his conclusions been based in that minimum
amount of information, he must be impartial in the search for facts. As a CI
espionage agent you must have two things in mind in working as an
interrogator, the detection and prevention of a threat and the security of the
armed forces and the collection of information of interest for the departments
of intelligence.


     A.    Carry out an exhaustive study of all the material available in the
case under investigation:

     1.    The interrogation is the art of questioning and examining a source
to obtain the maximum quantity of useful information. The goat of
interrogation is to obtain true and useful information in a legal manner and
in the minimum amount of time possible.

     2.    To do effective work and carry out a logical sequence of
questions, you must always have in mind all that you know to that moment about
the case under investigation.

     a.    Identify yourself to all persons involved in the incident,
including witnesses, victims, and investigations.

     b.    Identify the exact circumstances of the incident occurred.

     c.    Determine where each incident happened or activity.

     d.    Identify how it happened.

     e.    Identify why it happened.

     2.    Pay particular attention to all the details of the case,
especially those details that are not of public knowledge as yet.

LN324-91 d. Become familiar WITH the legal aspects and procedures that apply to the case. a. Identify the elements of the crime that could help you determine the objectives of the interrogation. b. Identify the ilegal or prohibited methods. Do not use force, mental torture, threats, insults or exposition to cruel or inhuman treatment of any sort. NOTE: IN CASE THAT THERE IS DOUBT IN REGARDS TO THE LEGALITY OF A METHOD, CONSULT WITH AN AUTHORITY IN A HIGHER ECHELON TO CLARIFY THE DOUBTS. B. Identify possible suspects for interrogation: 1. Become familiar completely WITH the history of the suspects. History data of particular interest during the interrogation include: a. Age, place of birth, nationality and race. b. Rank, or position in the community. c. Level of education. d. Present and past occupations. e. Habits. f. Associates (business partners) g. Criminal history. NOTE: IF IT IS POSSIBLE TO OBTAIN THIS INFORMATION BEFORE THE INTERROGATION, OBTAIN IT FROM THE SUSPECT DURING THE INITIAL PHASE OF THE INTERROGATION. 3. Use the history of the suspect information to: a. Develop the best method of questioning b. Prove the truthful intention of the suspect 205
LN324-91 c. Impress the fact to the suspect that the detailed fact is the investigation of the case. 3. Determine the available information, what type of attitude is expected from the suspect. a. Cooperative and friendly: Offers little resistance and he will talk freely about almost any theme. b. Neutral and non-sharing: Will cooperate up to a certain point. Direct questions and to the grain of the matter will have to be used to obtain the answers. c. Hostile and antagonistic: Frequently, will refuse to talk and will offer much resistance. 4. Classify the suspects according to the following: a. Persons WITH previous offenses and whose guilt is almost certain according to information already available. b. Persons whose guilt is doubtful or uncertain due to the weak evidence available or the lack of essential facts. 5. If possible, carry out a visual observation of the suspect before the interrogation takes place to identify weaknesses that could be exploited during the interrogation. C. Prepare an interrogation plan: 1. Identify the objective of the interrogation: All interrogation must have a defined purpose. This purpose must be kept in mind during the entire preparation process and when the interrogation is carried out. But, it must not be concentrated so much in the objective as to allow another valuable information to be overlooked during the interrogation. 2. Identify the type of interrogation: a. Direct interrogation: The suspect knows that he is been interrogated. Nevertheless perhaps he does not know the true objective of the interrogation. This method takes less time than the other one. 206
LN324-91 b. Indirect interrogation: Obtain information through deception. The suspect does not have any idea that he is been interrogated. This method requires a careful planning, extreme discretion, and must be applied WITH much skill. 3. Identify and obtain the helpful things required for interrogation: a. Files b. Documents c. Maps/charts d. Pencil, notebooks, tape recorder, etc. e. Any other equipment that could facilitate the process of interrogation. 4. Identify the approximation methods that will be used during the interrogation: NOTE: SELECTING AN INITIAL APPROXIMATION IS NECESSARY, BUT YOU MUST KEEP THE FLEXIBILITY OF MOVING FROM ONE APPROXIMATION METHOD TO ANOTHER. 5. APPROXIMATION METHODS: a. DIRECT APPROXIMATION: Do not try to hide the purpose of the interrogation. It works better when it is used WITH persons whose guilt is almost certain and WITH those persons that have little knowledge of what security is. It is a good method to interrogate persons of low level or rank in organizations. This method takes little time and is simple. This method offers the best opportunity to demonstrate empathy and understanding to the suspect. Act as if the offense is something that the suspect will not commonly do. Treat the suspect as a rational person who was only exposed to the circumstances of the case. 207
LN324-91 b. FILE AND DOSSIER: Prepare a file that contains all the information collected about the suspect. A careful arrangement of the information in the file could give the appearance of having much more information than it really has. Put additional papers, although they do not contain information to just give the appearance of an enormous file. Mark the file WITH different sections/areas of interest about the history of the suspect. Confront the suspect WITH the file and warn him that it contains detailed information of his background history and activities and that it is useless for him to refuse to cooperate in the interrogation. The triumph of this method depends upon the immaturity of the suspect, the amount of information available, and the skills used by the interrogation agent to convince the suspect. c. WE KNOW IT ALL: Make questions based upon information that is already known to us. When the suspect refuses to answer, hesitates, or provides incorrect information, you yourself provide the information or correct answer. If it is used correctly, you may convince the suspect that we know it all and that his answers are not of real importance. When the suspect starts to answer truthfully, weave other questions, of which we do not have the answers. Always verify the truthfulness of the suspect starting to make the questions of which we know the information. This method could be used WITH or without the files and dossier method. d. FUTILITY/USELESSNESS: You must convince the suspect that resisting to answer to the interrogation is useless. Present true information to the suspect in a persuasive and logical manner to exploit the psychological and moral weaknesses of the persons. e. QUICK SHOT: Make a series of questions to the suspect in a way that he will not have time to answer one before the next one is made. Since the suspect does not have time to formulate his answers he will get confused and could contradict himself. Confront him WITH the inconsistence of his answers, so that perhaps he may reveal more information than he wishes. This provides leads to further questions. Prepare all questions beforehand. Use a competent experienced interrogator. Use this method immediately after his arrest to take advantage of his state of confusion. 208
LN324-91 f. INCENTIVE: To reward the suspect's cooperation and the fact of telling the truth, this is attained normally by providing him WITH some physical commodity, (cigarettes, sweet, coffee, etc.) that normally is not given to him. Do not make promises or commitments that are beyond your ability to fulfill. Use caution to avoid that the suspect gives false information WITH the intention of getting the article he wishes. Never deny the basic articles of human needs. Do not use the threat of taking food so as to obtain his cooperation. g. REPETITION: Make a question, wait for the answer, and repeat the question and the answer several times. This is done WITH all questions until the suspect is totally bored and starts to give unexpected answers so as to break the boredom. This method works better WITH a hostile person. Generally it does not work WITH an introverted or timid person. h. MATT AND JEFF: You must use two experienced interrogators that could develop two different personalities towards the suspect. The first interrogator acts very formal, little sympathetic, and at times rude, noisy and aroused. The second interrogator appears when the suspect feels lost and alone. The second scolds the first interrogator for his poor professional conduct and orders that he leaves the interrogation room. The second interrogator apologizes WITH the suspect and tries to calm him. He shows empathy WITH the suspect and tries to establish some common ground between the two, for example: both are intelligent and sensitive, while the first interrogator was not. The idea is that the first interrogator could return to the interrogation and help if the suspect stops to cooperate. i. PRIDE: This method could be used in two ways. Attack the pride of the suspect accusing him of being weak or insinuating his poor ability to do anything. The suspect who is proud will hurry to defend his abilities. Frequently this will explain why he did or did not do something just to defend his honor. You may obtain important information from his answers. The other way to use this method is to praise the suspect until you get him to admit certain information as a way of reclaiming responsibility/credit. This brings the suspect an opportunity to boast what the has done. 209
LN324-91 j. SILENCE METHOD: Do not say anything to the suspect, but look at him fixedly in the eyes. Do not move your gaze, but make him break the eye contact. As the suspect gets nervous, he will start to make questions, but do not break the silence until you are prepared to do so. Keep this method for some time and the suspect will get nervous. When breaking the silence you must question the suspect WITH questions that indicate his guilt. k. CHANGE IN SCENARIO: Take the suspect out of the interrogation room environment. Take the suspect to a more peaceful but controlled area that could give the opportunity to have a peaceful and nice conversation during which you may pull the necessary information from the suspect. 1. ESTABLISH HIS IDENTITY: It is alleged that the suspect is not the person he claims to be, but that he is a person who the police authorities are searching for political assassinations and acts of terrorism and treason, or any serious accusation. In his intent to establish his identity, the suspect could give valuable information and leads for further investigations. m. EMOTIONAL: Determine what emotion motivates the suspect (hate, love, vengeance, desire to make money) and exploit that emotion. This method is very effective when you use immature and timid persons. 5. Develop detailed questions to use during the interrogation: a. Develop questions that guarantee that the area of interest is exploited. b. Develop questions that establish all facts (who, what, when, where, why and how). c. Develop control questions of which the answers are already known. d. Develop non-pertinent questions if the true objective of the interrogation is been hidden from the suspect. Use non-pertinent questions to break the suspect's concentration. 210
LN324-91 e. Develop repeated questions making the same questions but in a different way. f. Develop direct questions that require a narrative answer. g. Develop follow-up questions that allow the expansion of themes/areas as they become necessary. D. Select the interrogation personnel based in the selected approximation, type of suspect, and the ability of the interrogation agents. 1. Select an interrogation agent that has personality characteristics that are adequate and an interest in human nature. Personal qualities desired in an interrogation agent are: 1) Motivation 2) Be alert 3) Patience and tact 4) Objectivity 5) Credibility 6) Adaptability 7) Perseverance 8) Linguistic skills 2. Select an interrogation group, if possible. It is necessary to have a group to successfully use much of the approximation methods already discussed. Additionally, an interrogation agent could notice that he cannot obtain the necessary information after having used various approximations and techniques, or is tired in the middle of a long interrogation. This could cause the loss of control of the interrogation and another interrogation agent must replace the first. E. Guide the interrogation group in the approximation methods already selected and the role that each one will play in the interrogation. 211
LN324-91 F. Make all the arrangements in regards to the suspect: 1. Coordinate the arrest of the suspect. a. Make arrangements WITH the police to detain the suspect. 2. Make the arrangements to locate the suspect and give him board after the arrest. 3. Coordinate the use of facilities to give food to the suspect. 4. Coordinate the services of an interpreter if necessary. 5. If the suspect is of the opposite sex coordinate the presence of a witness of the same sex if necessary. It is also good to coordinate the presence of a witness to observe how the information is obtained; and so as to avoid that the suspect accuses us of using ilegal tactics such as torture, coercion and mental abuse. a. Obtain the authorization of the commander to use a witness in the interrogation. NOTE: IF THE SUSPECT IS OF THE OPPOSITE SEX, INFORM HIM OR HER OF HIS OR HER RIGHT TO HAVE A WITNESS OF THE SAME SEX PRESENT DURING THE INTERROGATION. IF THE SUSPECT DOES NOT WISH TO HAVE A WITNESS OF THE SAME SEX PRESENT, OBTAIN A SIGNED SWORN DECLARATION, INDICATING THIS WISH. (ALTHOUGH THE SUSPECT REFUSES TO USE A WITNESS, PLACE A WITNESS OF THE SAME SEX AT A DISTANCE THAT COULD LISTEN TO WHAT GOES ON DURING THE INTERROGATION WITHOUT BEEN SEEN BY THE SUSPECT. G. Select and prepare the interrogation room: 1. Select a room that gives privacy during the interrogation. Eliminate all distraction possible. 2. Select a room that allows you to control the physical environment. 212
LN324-91 3. Select a room that has a nice constant temperature. 4. Arrange the furniture in the interrogation room. The furniture must be only a small table to write, but that does not give an area in which the suspect could hide under, and three chairs. 5. Place all material necessary during the interrogation in the room. Materials such as paper, pencil, reference manuals and other interrogation aids. NOTE: DO NOT HAVE A TELEPHONE OR ANY ARTICLE THAT COULD BE USED AS AN ARM IN THE INTERROGATION ROOM. H. Install and test the recording equipment. Use the recording equipment so that you could keep your concentration during the interrogation. Taking notes during the interrogation could break the rhythm of the questioning and it could cause you to loose the sequence of the questions and the concentration. 1. Install the recording equipment so that it is looks as if it is part of the furniture of the office. NOTE: TO USE THE RECORDING EQUIPMENT, FIRST CONSULT WITH THE SUSPECT AND GET HIS PERMISSION. 2. Test the equipment to make sure that it is functioning correctly. I. Receive and identify the suspect: 1. During the initial contact keep a professional posture and try to gain the trust of the suspect. 2. Verify the identity of the suspect and examine his personal documents. J. Identify yourself and the other members of the interrogation equipment. Use your official badge to make sure that the suspect knows your identity as a member of the military intelligence. K. Explain to the suspect that the nature of the accusation is against his behalf. 213
LN324-91 [page missing] b. Try to identify contradictions and weaknesses in the history of the suspect. 5. Change interrogation agents if the first interrogation agent cannot obtain true information or a confession after having used various approximation techniques. 6. If all the approximations fail with the suspect, confront him with crime witnesses if possible. 7. If necessary, make a final convincing appeal against the suspect's continuous resistance. a. Insist in appealing the existence of all evidence against him. b. Confront the suspect with the contradictions and weaknesses in his history. Q. If the suspect admits culpability, obtain a sworn declaration signed by him. R. CLOSING PHASE OF THE INTERROGATION: 1. Close the interrogation for any of the following reasons: a. If the suspect is sick, wounded, or advanced age and needs medical attention. b. Various interrogations are necessary to obtain all the necessary information. c. The suspect is bored and denies to cooperate. d. All the questions have been answered and the requirements of the interrogation have been satisfied. e. The initiative has been lost and you as interrogation agent decide to close the interrogation. 2. When the interrogation is closed, always consider the possibility of interrogating the suspect again. a. Finish the interrogation in a nice manner. 214
LN324-91 b. Re-emphasize the approximations used to gain confidence from the suspect. c. Give opportunity to the suspect to add additional information to the one already given. 3. Use the time dedicated to the Closing to try to obtain information that may have not been discussed during the interrogation. A suspect could relax a little more after knowing that the interrogation has been finished and he could reveal additional information. S. Disposing of the suspect: 1. Have the police put him under custody. 2. Give the suspect to pertinent civil authorities. 3. Give the suspect to the commander's custody. T. PREPARE THE REQUIRED REPORTS 215