CHAPTER XXVII



     As a counter intelligence (CI) Special Agent (SA) you must know how to
plan and conduct a vigilance. It is probable that during your career as a SA
you will be assigned to missions to conduct a vigilance. It is your duty to
establish the personnel, time and equipment that will be needed to carry out
this mission.


     1.    Determine the vigilance objectives:

           a.   The vigilance is an investigative tool that consists of
keeping a person, place or target under physical or technical observation to
obtain evidence or information pertaining to an investigation or CI

           b.   When more simple methods and financial expenditures have not
been successful, the vigilance is used to fulfill the specific objectives of
the investigation. The objectives of vigilance include:

     (1)   Establish the identity of the person involved in activities of
interest to CI.
     (2)   Detecting ilegal activities that fall under the jurisdiction of CI
     (3)   Obtain information to use in an interrogation.
     (4)   Develop leads for future investigations.
     (5)   Confirm or refute information.
     (6)   Obtain admissible evidence in a legal manner.


LN324-91 [page missing] d. Detailed description of the name and addresses of associates, contacts and relatives of the SUBJECT. e. Professional training of the SUBJECT in the countervigilance techniques (Figure 1). FIGURE 1 COUNTERSURVEILLANCE SUBJECT ACTIONS COUNTER MOVES ______________________________________________________________________ Using convoy techniques Using reserve personnel so they be aware of the convoy techniques Changing direction many times Constant change of watch persons in a short time Re-tracing a course Constant change of watch persons Using the reflection on windows Allow quite a distance and take up innocent actions, such as passing the SUBJECT and entering a store Using baits (throwing paper or Use reserve personnel to extract the similar objects) and observe if articles an hour later any person picks it up Changing the pace as you walk Maintain harmony with the area and act in a natural way Using public transportation Maintain at least one watch person and immediately getting off without climbing on public transportation Getting off public transportationMaintain the vehicle or get off and in a deserted area walk in the opposite direction of the SUBJECT Climbing up various public Using support vehicles transportation in succession 242
LN324-91 4. Conduct a study of the area to obtain and analyze detailed information of the place where the vigilance took place. Consider the area where the SUBJECT lives, works or spends time. a. Obtain a map and take notes of: 1) Road constructions 2) Police control points 3) One-way streets 4) No outlet streets 5) Other articles of potential interest (Shopping centers, markets, etc.) b. Identify the nature, place, structure and type of building that is most frequently found. Put emphasis in: 1) The residence of the SUBJECT. 2) The working place of the SUBJECT. c. Study the population of the area to identify particular or potential problems. 1) Race 2) Custom and cultural habits 3) Religion 4) Language 5) Reaction of the people to strangers d. Identify the traffic pattern 1) Change of workers 2) Movement of vehicles a) One-way streets b) Changing directional lines c) Congested areas d) Zone considerations (commercial, residential or industrial) e. Identify the public transportation systems including: (1) Type (bus, taxi, railroad) (2) Tolls (cash or special coupons) (3) Timetable (4) Loading and unloading places 243
LN324-91 f. Review the local laws (1) Identify the local laws and their impact in the personnel and method regarding vigilance. (2) Identify the application methods. (3) Identify the local police agencies, including their appearance. g. Obtain the weather reports during your vigilance. h. If possible, conduct a search of the area. 5. Prepare a vigilance plan that includes all the operational considerations and instructions to make sure that the objective of the watch is achieved. The plan must be detailed to avoid wrong interpretations, but it must not be so restricted that it eliminates flexibility and the initiative of the individual watch person. NOTE: The vigilance plan could be formal or informal, oral or written, depending upon the circumstances and time availability. a. Identify the personnel requirements. (1) Identify the number and type of persons that would be required. (2) Select qualified personnel to participate in the vigilance. Main qualifications include: (a) Previous experience in conducting a vigilance. NOTE: It is essential that a maximum number of personnel have previous experience in conducting a vigilance, because operational and technical methods cannot be learned completely from a book. A person without qualification could harm the vigilance. (b) Physical appearance that does not attract curiosity. (c) Ability to stay without being recognized and ability to mix WITH his surroundings or environment. 244
LN324-91 NOTE: Select persons from the area to be used in the area where other persons will attract attention. These other persons must be used to control and supervise the vigilance of a place from a safe distance. (d) Expedients (ability to adapt quickly to any situation) (e) Physical vital strength and patience (f) Detailed perception (g) Retentive memory b. Determine the requirements of the logistics and administrative supports. (1) Relief vigilance personnel from other duties (2) Obtain special documents, if required (3) Provide financing to cover the project and for contingent financial expenses (4) Arrange to obtain the vehicles (5) Obtain and examine the support equipment (6) Arrange for food and other commodities, if appropriate, for the vigilance personnel (7) Prepare one or more cover stories to explain each presence and activities of the watch persons in a particular place (8) Plan the relief for the watch crew (9) Give them arms, if necessary c. Determine the control and communication procedures (1) Establish the control procedures (a) Establish a central control point to direct the vigilance operations (b) Clearly tell the watch personnel what is the chain of command from the watch man to the control point. (2) Establish the procedures for communication. (a) Establish radio communications, when possible, as the foremost method of communication between the operative elements and the control 245
LN324-91 point. 246
LN324-91 NOTE: The use of the safe communication systems could be necessary in some circumstances. EQUIPMENT AND PROVISIONS Radios Cameras and accessories Binoculars Tape recorders Books and pencil Maps Small transmitter in SUBJECT'S car Receiver for the transmitter Change of clothes (b) Establish visual signals when the radios do not work or there are no radios available. 1 Limit the number of signals and keep them simple. 2 Visual signals must be natural gestures that do not attract attention to the watch person (Example: taking a paper from your pocket, lighting a cigarette, etc.) (c) Establish the procedures for emergency communication. d. Determine the specific mission that will be assigned to each group or individual watch person. NOTE: The planning and preparation must consider all the possible contingencies that could develop during the vigilance. 6. To direct the members of the team about vigilance. NOTE: The watch team must know as much as possible about the case so that in such way they could interpret the SUBJECT'S actions. a. Inform the participants of the vigilance objectives. b. Inform the participants of the type, methods and techniques that will be used in the vigilance (Figures 3 and 4). 247
LN324-91 c. Inform the participants of the role they will play in the vigilance. d. Provide the participants WITH the target information and the area. Use photographs, maps, sketches to familiarize the participants completely WITH the target aspects and WITH the area that will be watched. e. Provide additional training and preliminary training in the vigilance and counter vigilance methods. VIGILANCE METHODS a. A fixed vigilance is when a watch person(s) is kept in a place or fixed position to observe the activities of an specific place. b. A vigilance in action is when the watch person(s) follow the SUBJECT from one place to another to keep the continuous observation of his activities. The vigilance in action could be: (1) A mobile vigilance (feet) (2) A car patrol vigilance c. A technical vigilance is when technical visual equipment, electronic bugging equipment, and photographs are used. d. A mixed vigilance is when there is a combination of methods mentioned above. This method is more expensive in money terms and personnel, but will give us the best result. 248
LN324-91 FIGURE 4 VIGILANCE TECHNIQUES DISTANCE: The distance between the watch person and the SUBJECT will depend upon the circumstances and the watch person's judgement and must vary during the course of the vigilance. Normally, the more people there are in the street the closer the watch person will be from the SUBJECT. TURNING ON CORNERS: Do not make immediate turns after a SUBJECT in corners. A suspicious SUBJECT could "examine and observe" a watch person by just standing in the corner and observing attentively these persons that turn around the same corner. Making a wider turn will help keep our pose and will allow us to review the area. CONVOY: Valuable SUBJECT(s) to a vigilance could use convoys while conducting important activities. The convoys will keep a position in the back of the SUBJECT, keeping him on view, and is alerted about watch persons. Be attentive and alert about the utilization of convoys and take appropriate action to prevent the commitment of the vigilance. DECOYS: The SUBJECT uses a substitute of similar physical appearance so as to act as a decoy and to confuse the watch person. This is an efficient method when it is used in the residence or work place of the SUBJECT. CLIMBING BUSES AND TAXIS: If the SUBJECT climbs a bus or taxi, the watch person "A" must try to climb the bus or taxi, but always keeping a distance behind the SUBJECT if possible. RESTAURANT:Obtain a chair out of the direct SUBJECT'S view range, but so as you can see the SUBJECT, if possible, in a place where you could listen to the SUBJECT. Order according to the type of service ordered by the SUBJECT to be sure that you can pay the bill and leave the restaurant without looking track of the SUBJECT. RADIOS: The use of communication equipment must be without attracting attention to the public's curiosity. Do not bend to approach the microphone. RECOGNIZING THE SUBJECT: The SUBJECT must be physically shown to the watch person, if possible. Study and be prepared to recognize the appearance and the SUBJECT'S mannerisms. Do not depend in the SUBJECT'S dress manner. 249
LN324-91 VIGILANCE TECHNIQUES COMING INTO A BUILDING:The size, nature and surroundings are significant considerations to determine future actions. Small buildings, if any, could be kept under vigilance, it is not necessary to follow the SUBJECT to this building unless the SUBJECT made a contact WITH other persons there in the past. In large buildings, follow the SUBJECT and use the inside of the building to your advantage. Keep in mind that lazy persons attract attention. ELEVATORS: Follow the SUBJECT to the elevator only if there are other persons and if the SUBJECT does not suspect he is been observed. Stop in the floor above or below the SUBJECT and use the stairs to get to the same floor as the SUBJECT'S. In department stores or similar buildings, the watch person could leave the elevator on the same floor as the SUBJECT. If the SUBJECT enters an elevator alone, stay in the lobby and determine the direction the SUBJECT went to by observing the floor indicator of the elevator. Use the stairs and another elevator to reach the same floor as the SUBJECT'S. Figure 4 (cont.) 7. Conduct the vigilance using one of the methods mentioned below: a. The method of a watchman NOTE: Avoid this method in a moving vigilance, if possible, because it does not allow flexibility. (1) Operate in behind the SUBJECT and in the same street. (2) Operate in the street adjacent to the SUBJECT when it is operationally necessary to avoid the commitment of the vigilance. The circumstance will dictate if we must operate in front, behind or next to the SUBJECT. (EXAMPLE: Operate next to the SUBJECT when he turns around the corner to observe if he makes contact or enters into a building). (3) Keep close to the SUBJECT to observe his actions. 250
LN324-91 (4) If the SUBJECT turns around in a corner and the area is not too crowded continue crossing the street in the intersection. Observe the street in the direction of the SUBJECT, write down the position and action of the person and act according to the situation. (5) If the SUBJECT turns around in a corner that is crowded, stop in the corner, in a casual manner and observe the SUBJECT'S actions. Unless the SUBJECT is stopped in a corner, continue the vigilance in the same street. b. The two watchmen method ("AB" method) (1) A watchman is kept in position "A" directly behind the SUBJECT. (2) A second watchman is kept in position "B" behind "A" or in the street next to the SUBJECT and next to him. (3) The distance is kept according to the situation. (4) If both watchmen are in the same street and the SUBJECT turns around in the corner, watchman "A" continues to walk in the original direction and crosses the street at the intersection. From the adjacent street, watchman "A" points out the appropriate procedures of following the SUBJECT to watchman "B". (5) If watchman "B" is operating in the adjacent street and the SUBJECT turns around in the same corner that he is at, watchman "B" must cross the street behind the SUBJECT and take watchman "A"s position. It is not necessary to use signals because this arrangement must be established beforehand. (6) If watchman "B" is operating in the adjacent street and the SUBJECT crosses the street in the direction of watchman "B", watchman "B" must limit his step to avoid contact WITH the SUBJECT. Watchman "B" must enter in a store or continue walking straight ahead, keeping visual contact WITH watchman "A" to look for a signal indicating his next move. 251
LN324-91 c. The three men method (The "ABC" method). (1) A member of a group is placed in position "A" at a short distance from the SUBJECT. Watchman "A" observes WITH detail and writes down the SUBJECT'S actions. (2) The second watchman is placed in position "B" behind watchman "A". Watchman "B" keeps the constant observation of actions of both watchman "A" and the SUBJECT and prepares to assume the position of watchman "A" when it is required. Watchman "B" also observes to see if there are any convoys and takes appropriate action against these convoys. (3) The third watchman is placed in position "C" in the street adjacent and next tQ the SUBJECT. Watchman "C" directs the actions of watchman "A" and "B" WITH signals arranged beforehand and prepares to assume the watchman "A"s position if the SUBJECT crosses the street and leaves watchmen "A" and "B" alone. NOTE: If the group of watchmen have more persons, they will follow behind watchmen "B" and "C". (4) If the subject turns around the corner directly on the side he is walking (out of watchman "C"), watchman "A" crosses the street in the intersection and assumes the position of watchman "C" and watchman "B" places himself in position "A" and watchman "C" crosses the street and places himself in position "B". (5) If the SUBJECT turns around the corner and crosses the street in the direction of watchman "C", it is not necessary to change positions. (6) If the SUBJECT simply crosses the street in which he is walking, without turning around any place, then watchman "C" is placed in position "A", and watchman "A" assumes the position of watchman "C" and watchman "B" crosses the street and places himself in position "B". NOTE: All position changes must be directed depending upon the circumstances and the watchmen judgement and they will be done in a way so as not to attract the attention of the population or the SUBJECT'S attention. 252
LN324-91 d. The progressive vigilance is used when the SUBJECT has counter- vigilance experience and it is expected that he will use any technique to avoid the vigilance. (1) Locate the SUBJECT'S place to start (residence, office, etc). (2) After locating this point, start to pick up the SUBJECT from any place outside out of his sight. (3) Continue and observe the SUBJECT only at short distances on the first day. (4) In the following days, pick the SUBJECT at the time and place where you left him the last time, and again follow him at a short distance to a new point. NOTE: This method will be painful and slow if the SUBJECT changes his daily routine occasionally, but will eventually take the watch persons to the places and contacts that the SUBJECT wants to keep secret. 8. Write down all the observations regarding the SUBJECT and his activities. Write down in a manner that does not attract attention. The small tape recorders are a valuable tool during vigilance. Writing notes in maps or newspapers also works. 9. Carry out the fixed vigilance. a. Establish an stationary position to avoid the SUBJECT'S detection or the curiosity of other persons. Conduct the vigilance in one of these positions: (1) A fixed place could be used during a short term or during a stop in a mobile vigilance. (2) WITH a parked vehicle in the vicinity of the target. a) Do not park in the same place for a long time. b) Warn the police agency if the vigilance involves parking a vehicle for a long time. 253
LN324-91 c) Do not keep the vehicle's motor running while parked. It is very dangerous (carbon monoxide could enter inside the car) and will attract attention. d) Unplug the light inside the vehicle. e) After parking the vehicle, you must open the door and close it, many persons unconsciously listen to determine if they open and closed the vehicle's doors right after parking. (3) In a room or an apartment located next to the SUBJECT. (a) This place must be one or two floors above the SUBJECT'S place. (b) This place must be accessible to entrances that are not visible by the SUBJECT. (c) This place must be occupied all day to avoid the entrance of non- authorized persons. (d) The observer must seat in a dark room away from direct view of the window to get the best advantage that the shade in the room offers. (e) Limit the number of watch persons to two or three in a position, because a larger number could attract attention. (f) Frequently relieve the personnel to avoid fatigue. 10. Carrying out the vehicle's vigilance method: a. The vehicle's method. NOTE: Avoid this method in the mobile vigilance, if possible, because it does not allow flexibility. (1) Prepare the vehicle. (2) Operate in the back side of the SUBJECT'S vehicle. 254
LN324-91 (3) Maintain close to the SUBJECT to observe his actions. (4) If the SUBJECT'S vehicle turns around in a corner follow him or continue crossing the intersection and make a "U" turn and continue following him. Observe the street and the direction of the SUBJECT, write down the position and persons's action, and act according to the situation. b. The two vehicle method ("AB" method) (1) Prepare the vehicle. (2) The first vehicle is kept in position "A" directly behind the SUBJECT, while this vehicle must be kept at least two or three vehicles behind the SUBJECT'S vehicle. (3) The second vehicle is kept in position "B" directly behind "A" or in the street parallel the SUBJECT'S vehicle and at his side, while receiving directions, by radio from vehicle "A". (4) The distance is kept according to the situation. NOTE: It is possible to keep the vigilance through the back mirror of the watch person's vehicle when traveling in front of the SUBJECT'S vehicle. (5) Change positions of watch person's vehicles frequently to avoid that the SUBJECT recognizes these vehicles. c. The three vehicle method ("ABC" method) (1) Prepare the vehicle (2) In a vigilance through vehicles using the "ABC" method, the watch person's vehicles are lined in the same manner that in "ABC" techniques for mobile vigilance (on foot). Vehicle "C" operates in a known parallel route. (3) If the circumstances dictate it both vehicles "B" and "C" could operate in the SUBJECT'S parallel route. Change vehicles "B" and "C" frequently WITH vehicle "A". 255
LN324-91 (4) A watchman's vehicle could be placed in a position in front of the SUBJECT'S vehicle to avoid that the SUBJECT could recognize the watchmen's vehicles. 11. End the vigilance when: a. The vigilance objectives have been attained. b. The SUBJECT of a discreet vigilance knows that he is under vigilance and takes actions that indicate that he recognizes that he has been watched. 12. Prepare the vigilance reports using the Agent's Report. The report must have the following information: a. Introduction paragraph (1) Date and time when the vigilance started and ended. (2) Identify the person under vigilance, if he is not the SUBJECT of the investigation. (3) Complete identification of other agencies or person(s) that provided assistance during the vigilance. (4) Type of vigilance (5) Specific place or general area involved. b. Detailed description of the SUBJECT, including his mannerisms, and defined habits. c. Chronological details of events or activities in a narrative form or tabulation, identifying each contact and building by number (For example, Contact 1); a summary of all the conversations that were heard about the SUBJECT. Including an exact transcript, if possible. d. Description of each contact. e. Description of each building implied. 256
LN324-91 f. If there is a formal report, include the date, time and reasons for which the vigilance was discontinued. g. The SA in charge of the vigilance team signs the report. 257