CHAPTER XXIX

                             COUNTER TERRORISM


      In the previous chapter "Terrorism" was discussed in the most important
points in regards with the matter of terrorism. Now let us see what must be the
government's and the Security Forces answer to the threat of terrorism.


      There is no country in the world that does not have or could have the threat
of terrorism. The act of terrorism is very simple to carry out, but the operations
of counter terrorism are not so simple. Counter terrorism requires preparation,
training and a special execution: A failure will result in the loss of innocent
lives and possibly a victory for the terrorists. Above all, the counter terrorist
operations demand good military intelligence cooperation.


      a.   In this space we will discuss the government actions against the
terrorist activities. Before we start to discuss the components of a counter
terrorist program we must mention the terrorists' goal and the fundamental threat
of terrorism to governments.


LN324-91 1) Question: What is the terrorists' goal? And what is the government's goal? Answer: Terrorists wish to obtain the popular support for their movement. The government wishes to keep the popular support on their side. 2) Question: Taking this terrorists' and government's goal into consideration, Who could remember what is the fundamental threat of terrorism to governments? Answer: Terrorism will give the urban insurgent a method to develop the potential for mass uprising and give the rural insurgent a method to oblige them to reduce the control of the government and to force them into the desired behavior. b. A government's answer to the acts of terrorism could cause even more problems if the government does not follow the procedures of a good program of counter terrorism. For that reason it must analyze carefully the needs of a good program of counter terrorism to avoid making exactly what the terrorists wish. c. Basically, there are five components of the counter terrorism program: 1) PREDICTION: It includes the intelligence operations, and the work of analyzing the threat, the terrorists' power, and the most vulnerable targets. Our knowledge of the characteristics of terrorism and terrorism's strategy will be key parts in this job. EXAMPLE: "From our study of terrorism we know that there are many possible targets. We also know that it is not possible to know WITH certainty what will be the next terrorist's targets, but using our intelligence about the terrorists and their goals, we could make a prediction about the most probable targets and this will give us more possibility to protect these targets or react quickly against the terrorists. 2) PREVENTION: a. Eliminate the causes: It will not be possible to eliminate all the terrorism causes, but at least a government that could show the population that they are trying to better the society's condition will create an environment in which it will be difficult for the terrorists to gain much popular support. 270
LN324-91 b. DIPLOMACY: This will have much value because it will eliminate the foreign support of terrorists and their sanctuary---but it is very difficult to imagine that all governments will like to eliminate terrorism because some governments are the biggest sponsors of terrorism. (What could give examples of some countries that sponsor terrorism?) 3) DISSUASION: Block the target. Remember that terrorists like to attack targets that are not protected. As we have discussed there are so many possible targets for terrorists that we cannot get complete protection. But the analysis of terrorists could show the most vulnerable targets and then we could give our priority to those targets. Also, frequently, only in few security actions could dissuade the terrorists. a. Physical security b. Personal security c. Security Operations (OPSEC) d. It is very possible that the best way to dissuade terrorists is to find a high proportion of their detection, conviction and punishment. 4) PREPARATION: Preparing the government forces to react. INCLUDES: a. Determining authority and jurisdiction b. Planning the counter terrorism operations c. Training the counter terrorism personnel 5) REACTION: The appropriate answer to the incident. 4. MILITARY INTELLIGENCE IN COUNTER TERRORISM: a. We already know the five components of a counter terrorism program. In each one of the components the military intelligence actions are essential. 271
LN324-91 b. FUNCTIONS OF MILITARY INTELLIGENCE IN THE COUNTER TERRORISM COMPONENTS: 1) Intelligence collection 2) Intelligence analysis 3) Intelligence dissemination c. THE MILITARY INTELLIGENCE RESPONSIBILITIES: 1) Initiate investigations 2) Confirm information 3) Obtain information sources 4) Give advice to the Commander d. MILITARY INTELLIGENCE JURISDICTION: 1) Each country is different and you must study the laws of the country in which you work. e. MILITARY INTELLIGENCE NEEDS: 1) The military intelligence needs in regards to terrorism are infinite. You need to obtain all the information possible about the terrorists, their targets and the surroundings in which they operate. f. The legal aspects in regards to the terrorism acts and terrorists have to be considered taking into account that the terrorist is a criminal and that he wishes that the authorities initiate repressive actions. This is one of the tactics used by them to obtain a reaction to the government and therefore strengthen their movement. 5. TAKING HOSTAGES AND THE RESCUE OPERATION: Since hostage taking is the most difficult type of situation, we will discuss a rescue operation in a hostage taking situation to show some details of the government's reaction to the acts of terrorism. 272
LN324-91 In this situation it is very important that the government have an appropriate reaction. The use of too much force could be worst than any reaction. Remember that often the terrorist's goal is to provoke the government to use inappropriate force. This is especially important in hostage taking cases. In such a situation the government will have to react very carefully to prevent that the terrorists could attain their goals. There are four rules for a rescue operation: a. The objective is a rescue mission to save the lives of the hostages-- without giving into the impossible demands of the terrorists. In any action taken by the security forces, this objective has importance, even when one has to escape from some terrorists. b. The rescue team must be of an adequate size and must only use adequate arms to combat the situation. Having too many people in the rescue group will only difficult the operation and give more targets to the terrorists. Always try to use arms that are not lethal, if possible, to avoid killing the hostages. c. It is important to obtain and use all the intelligence possible from the terrorists, the hostages, the area, etc. d. The rescue team must have a high degree of professionalism. It must be well prepared to fulfill its mission. NEGOTIATION WITH THE TERRORISTS: a. In entering in negotiations or considering entering in negotiations WITH the terrorists, the following are some options the government has: 1) Give into all the terrorists' demands 2) Deny all the terrorists' demands 3) Controlled negotiation so as to get additional time to take appropriate actions. 273
LN324-91 b. There are varied opinions and philosophies in regards to negotiations with terrorists; the following are among them: 1) Not to negotiate under any conditions 2) To negotiate to obtain the freedom of the hostages 3) Negotiate WITH the purpose of gaining additional time to take appropriate action. CONCLUSION: The counter terrorism operations are some of the most difficult and frustrating to military personnel. But they are also some of the most common types of operations today and could have great impact in the national life. It is important for you, as members of military intelligence corps, to understand the terrorist's operations their possible effects in the insurrection's war and the counter terrorism programs that the governments could carry out to effectively control the terrorist's threat. 274