CHAPTER XXX

                             PHYSICAL SECURITY


      Security, as we apply it to our classified information and defense material,
is a very complex theme. In order to better understand the complete theme of
security, we have subdivided the theme in three parts: PHYSICAL SECURITY, PERSONAL

      None of these three parts could exist by themselves. During the last
chapters we introduced the other two securities; personal and documents. In this
chapter we will discuss what is physical security in itself, but we wish that you
always keep in mind the other two securities so that you may be aware of the
relationship that exists between the three.

      So that you may fulfill your security function, you may have to be better
prepared for the enemy.



           a.    Physical
           b.    Personal and anti-terrorism
           c.    Information security
           d.    Operations security
           e.    Communications security
           f.    Transmissions security


      Physical security is defined as "The barrier system that is placed between
the potential intruder and what you wish to protect. These barriers could be of


LN324-91 a. NATURAL BARRIERS: Are those natural topographical characteristics such as rivers, mountains, seas, ravines, cliffs, etc., that by themselves slow down or difficult the entry or access of an intruder to an installation. b. STRUCTURAL BARRIERS: Are those barriers constructed by man, without consideration to its original intention, that could delay the intruder. Some examples of structural barriers are: walls, floors, doors, windows, locks, fences, etc. c. HUMAN BARRIERS: The guards, managers in charge of lodging, office workers and workshops workers who intercept the intruder and what he wishes to protect. d. ANIMAL BARRIERS:Generally dogs such as the German Shepherd, are trained and used as guards. e. ENERGY BARRIERS:Alarms, protective illumination, any electronic devise that serves to protect an installation. 3. PRINCIPLES IN WHICH THE APPLICATION OF PHYSICAL SECURITY IS BASED: a. The enemy's agent must have access to the information or material that interests him. The type of access depends in a number of factors, and could be done in different ways: 1) When you are considering protecting information, you should not only consider protecting the physical access, but the access to discussions about these material through the use of clandestine devices to listen [bugs]. If the enemy tries to tape a conversation about an specific theme, this is so useful to him as the original document in paper. 2) You must be careful also WITH the use of long-range photographic equipment to get access through openings in structures. 3) The themes discussed above could be considered also for sabotage. The sabotage agent does not have to place the device or destructive material in the place he wishes to cause damage. He could, in many ways, throw an explosive device against its target, (riffle, grenade launchers, rocket launchers, camouflaged explosives sent through the mail or WITH supplies), or could contaminate the fuel or oil deposits to cause damage to machinery, although they keep away from him. 276
LN324-91 4) You may consider all available resources that the enemy could access, and all these must be evaluated to determine how we could be able to counter arrest it. b. IS THERE ANY IMPENETRABLE BARRIER? 1) ANSWER: There is no barrier that is impenetrable. If a hostile government is set to dedicate sufficient time, money, personnel, materials and imagination to cross a barrier, they may succeed. c. SECURITY WITH DELAY DEFENSE SYSTEM: 1) Although no barrier could totally exclude an intruder, it could give a determinate delay time. It all depends upon the intruder's ability. 2) Instead of trying the exclusion through the use of just one barrier, the security could be based in a security in-depth system or accumulated delay. 3) To get optimum results it is necessary to add barrier over barrier, delay over delay, until sufficient delay time is accumulated that will allow us to control any possible penetration. This delay should be enough so that the available personnel could neutralize the intruder. 4) A fence without guards allows a short delay. If that fence is patrolled by trustworthy guards that keep it under observation within the delay time, the total delay time increases significantly. 5) In some cases it is necessary to differentiate between the need of denying access and the need to have knowledge that access has been gained. This refers to the neutralization, if a material is committed, you may take action to void its value for the enemy. 6) Physical security must be applied not just as a dissuasive means against the stealing property but also as a dissuasive means against espionage. 7) The spy only partially satisfies his purpose when he acquires information. Information looses value if the persons responsible for its custody know about the leak. Espionage does not have any value if it is revealed. 277
LN324-91 8) These considerations make the surreptitious entry the greatest danger from the CI's point of view. This makes the creation of two types of barriers necessary. One to protect those things that could be stolen and could not be neutralized and another to protect those things that could be neutralized. 9) To protect those things that could be neutralized a barrier that shows evidence of having penetrated is created. Example: (Broken window, etc.). d. Each installation must be treated as an individual entity when planning security. The location of an installation alone will bring problems that differ from those aspects of other installations. Each one must be considered as a separate problem. 4. PHYSICAL SECURITY ASPECTS: DISCUSSION OF DIFFERENT BARRIERS: a. NATURAL BARRIERS 1) ADVANTAGES OF NATURAL BARRIERS a) They provide a protection system without additional cost to the installation. b) The difficulty to penetrate an installation increases according to the barrier. 2) DISADVANTAGES OF NATURAL BARRIERS: a) Trees, ravines, vegetation, could serve as a hiding place to any possible intruder. b) Installations that have as barrier a body of water could be subject to penetration through a team of divers. 3) BODIES OF WATER AS BARRIERS: a) ADVANTAGES: (1) When the surface of the water is calm, it offers the guards or security personnel a very extensive field view range. (2) Water offers much resistance to a vehicle used by intruders by making it almost impossible to have rapid access to the installation. 278
LN324-91 (3) To gain access, the task of hiding a vehicle or boat without been detected by the guards or security personnel will be an obstacle to the intruder. b) DISADVANTAGES: (1) When the water is agitated it reduces the field of vision of the guards or security personnel. (2) It is possible to control the movement of a vehicle or boat to keep it hidden between waves. (3) The surface of the water reflects the light given by the illumination system. An intruder may use this situation in their favor when trying to penetrate an installation. 4) THE LAND AS BARRIER: a) The land where the installation sits must be evaluated and considered as much from the surface access point of view as from below the surface. b) Points to consider when evaluating the land as barrier: (1) The looser the ground the more noise it will cause when the intruder walks. (2) Muddy soil without vegetation is very difficult to cross and at the same time the intruder leaves their footprints. (3) Light colored soil provides reflection and contrast so as to allow the most efficient use of natural and artificial illumination. (4) Land that is uneven such as cliffs and ravines are difficult to cross and limit the amount of equipment and material that the intruder could introduce in the exterior perimeter area. b. STRUCTURAL BARRIERS: 1) As explained earlier, structural barriers are man-made constructions. To remove the vegetation around an installation is also considered as an structural barrier. 279
LN324-91 2) FENCES: Fences are independent structures, generally in a vertical plane, designed for the physical and or visual control of access to external areas. a) General facts about fences: (1) Define the area they protect (2) Reduce the number of guards required and facilitate the tasks of the patrol corps. (3) Cause delay in case of an intent to penetrate (4) Although they don't deny the access in themselves, they are a psychological obstacle to a possible intruder (5) They deny accidental access to innocent persons to the protected area (6) They help control the flow of vehicles towards those entrances controlled by guards 3) TWO TYPES OF FENCES: a) SOLID: They are used to deny visual and physical access to non- authorized persons. The materials normally used are bricks, concrete, wooden boards, stone, etc. (1) ADVANTAGES OF SOLID FENCES: (a) They are useful when you wish to hide certain activities within the installation. (b) They avoid the possibility of passing small items through the fence. (c) They could be built in such manner that it would be difficult to cross them without being detected. (d) For the most part, fences are built of stone, brick and concrete and they extend below the ground and make it difficult to the intruder to penetrate below. (2) DISADVANTAGES OF SOLID FENCES: (a) It is difficult to illuminate the zone around the installation because of the shadow caused by the fence. (b) They do not allow patrols within the installation to observe the activities in the external perimeter. (c) The installations that use solid fences have guards in towers. Tower guards are a disadvantage in itself. The towers confine the guard in a very limited area. Since the guard cannot move for a long time in the tower he does not stay alert. 280
LN324-91 b) COMPLETE VISION FENCES: Are built in such manner that they al]ow visual observation through the entire fence. It is designed only for the control of physical access between two areas. (1) ADVANTAGES OF COMPLETE VISION FENCES: (a) They allow the effective use of illumination since they do not cast a shadow. (b) They allow the effective use of guard patrol, since they could keep the installation's surrounding area in watch. (2) DISADVANTAGES: They allow a possible intruder to carry out a reconnaissance of the camp and could establish the installation's pattern of internal security guards. 3) PENETRATION: It is the main objective of all enemy or terrorist to attain access to the internal perimeter of an installation to carry out his mission. 4) THREE WAYS OF PASSING THE FENCES: a) ON TOP: Most fences are not high and are easy to climb. b) THROUGH THE MATERIAL: (If it is not a solid fence). Many fences are built in such manner that it is easy to break or separate them in such manner that it will allow the enemy's access without leaving evidence that there was a penetration. c) BELOW: If the fence is solid and very high, digging and penetrating below is possible. 5) CHARACTERISTICS OF FENCES: a) The minimum height of a fence is eight (8) feet. This is due to the consideration that an average man could jump or climb that height. b) It must be extended below the ground level. c) If it does not extend below the ground level, the minimum space between fences and the ground must not be over two inches. 281
LN324-91 d) Support posts: (1) Wood: Must be the best wood quality and measure at least 4 inches wide. (2) Metal: Must be at least 2 inches in diameter. They must be placed over concrete or firm ground at a depth of three feet. e) Protection - Upper part of the fence: (1) All fences must have in the upper part, additional obstacles that could prevent or delay the enemy's penetration. (2) Complete vision fences: (a) Barbed wires are placed in metal arms that extend outward, at a 45 degree angle. (b) Place barbed wires in metal arms in "V" shape. (c) The arms must be two feet long WITH three rows of barbed wire over them. (d) You may also use folding wiring. (3) Solid Fences: (a) You may use the same system as complete vision. (b) You may add glass in the upper part. (c) You may place sharp metal bars. (4) DISADVANTAGES: You must understand that the barbed wire system in the upper part of a fence does not completely prevent an intruder s entry. What this system provides is delay to the intruder and is another obstacle that he should pass through. f) GATES IN THE FENCES: The number of gates in a fence must be limited to the minimum necessary for the efficient and safe operation of an installation. Although all the gates must have the ability to be locked, when locked they must provide the same level of security that the fence itself provides. When there is considerable traffic on foot and vehicles it is preferable to provide separate gates for each type. 282
LN324-91 g) OPENING IN THE FENCES: All the openings within or below the fence (gully, sewage) that measures over 96 square inches must be sealed in such manner that they could only be penetrated from within. In the case of rivers or ravines that flow in the surroundings of the fence do not allowed this to extend over the water and it must be built parallel to the ditch. In case that fences are built through rivers or ravines, these must be dug to the river bed so as to avoid penetrations below the water. h) MULTIPLE FENCES: Multiple fences are formed by two or more parallel fences used in conjunction to form a perimeter barrier. In addition to increasing the delay time, they tend to trap the intruder and prevents our personnel from accidentally coming in contact WITH the alarms or security measures imposed around the fence. (1) The minimum rules for a fence also apply to each multiple fence unit. (2) The multiple fences must be at least 10 feet away. (3) The maximum distance allowed between two fences is determined by the ground, the illumination, and the guard's abilities, but it must not exceed 150 feet. (4) A greater distance than this, prevents the fences from being completed and could be attacked by the intruder as they treat it as a separate obstacle. 6) CLEAR ZONES: The clear zones is the area of the external or internal perimeter of the installation which is free of obstacles, structures and vegetation. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CLEARED ZONE: a) Must extend throughout a minimum of 20 feet in the external perimeter of the installation. b) Must extend throughout a minimum of 50 feet in the internal perimeter of the installation. c) Must remain free of vegetation, structures, trash or any other material that could allow the enemy to use it as hiding place. d) There should be no trees next to a fence. The enemy could use a tree to reconnoiter the installation and to try the access over the fence. 283
LN324-91 e) It is important to keep the grass mowed around the cleared zone so that there will be no possible hiding place for the enemy. f) Do not use the cleared zone as a storage area. g) If you do not have an adequate cleared zone, you must increase the height of the fence. h) If a fence is used to protect a large area, if possible, build a perimeter road that allows the car patrols and the quick delivery of reinforcements to any point of the fence. c. HUMAN BARRIERS: (THE GUARDS AND THE GUARD SYSTEMS) 1) The physical security depends upon the use of guard systems in such a way that natural and structural barriers could be used to control and avoid the access of non-authorized personnel. 2) The guard system is the most important element of the security program of an installation. 3) FOUR BASIC FUNCTIONS OF THE GUARD SYSTEM: a) Detect the intruders b) Sound an alarm c) Capture non-authorized personnel d) Identify authorized personnel 4) TWO GUARD CATEGORIES: a) Those whose only mission is to serve as guards in the installation. These men are trained specifically to carry out this task. b) Those who carry out this task as a punishment or as additional task of their normal work, or it is the job that they have been properly trained for. 5) RECRUITING THE GUARDS: Due to the important role that they play, security guards must be very carefully chosen. ELEMENTS TO BE CONSIDERED WHEN SELECTING GUARDS: a) Experience b) Training c) Must be strong d) Must be in good physical health e) Must be trustworthy 284
LN324-91 6) TRAINING THE GUARDS: THEMES TO INCLUDE IN TRAINING: a) A general orientation that includes the orders and the authority b) Instructions about the traffic control c) Riot control d) Personal defense e) Arms handling including maintenance and security f) First aid g) Communications h) Use of special arms i) Plans and emergency procedures j) Counter espionage k) Counter sabotage NOTE: The responsibility of the training generally falls upon one of the members of greater seniority of the guard's forces. 7) THE USE OF GUARDS: a) The guards' barracks must be located where they could enforce maximum control over the guard's posts and the sensitive areas. They must use the following rules: (1) In small installations WITH one only entrance, the barrack must be near the entrance. (2) In large installations a centrally located barrack is preferable to facilitate the quick deployment to any dangerous point. b) For the perimeter's security, the most effective use of guards is in fixed points that support themselves mutually. These require that each guard be visible to the one next to him, sharing therefore the responsibility of the area they protect. These posts must also be protected by the elements; such as: wind, rain, cold weather and the sun. c) It is less costly to use the guards on foot or mounted guards. The guards could verify the barriers at irregular intervals and will make it more difficult for the intruder to penetrate the barrier. 285
LN324-91 d) No matter what method you use for the guard's service you must prepare orders for each post and patrol. These must: (1) Must be brief and easy to understand (2) Include instructions about all the possible contingencies in regards to actions during emergency situations e) A guard must have sufficient time to rest if the job must be done effectively. Must, at least, be relieved every eight (8) hours. The guards in fixed posts must be relieved each four (4) hours. 8) SUPERVISION OF THE GUARDS: a) The continuous supervision is necessary to make sure that the guards are in their posts and carrying out their security tasks. The supervisors must keep in contact WITH each post, at least four (4) times a day. b) A characteristic guard force must consist of: (1) A commander (2) His assistant (3) Administrative personnel c) If guard services are given 24 hours, three shifts must be needed. Each shift has a similar organization. d) The supervision starts WITH a personal inspection of all the guards before the start of their shift. Each inspection includes: (1) Personal appearance (2) The equipment (3) Knowledge of special orders 9) THE GUARDS' EQUIPMENT: a) Distinctive uniform b) Credentials and or appropriate identification as a guard. c) Appropriate arm d) Additional equipment: notebook, whistles, flashlights 286
LN324-91 10) COMMUNICATIONS AMONG GUARDS: a) Fixed posts and patrols joined by a communications network. b) Direct telephone may be used. c) Portable radio. d) Emergency communications depend on messengers. e) The vehicles must be equipped WITH radio-transmitters, receivers. f) The central station must be in charge of a supervisor. g) The patrols on foot could use radios. d. ANIMAL BARRIERS: 1) An animal barrier consists of an animal that is used as guard system. 2) In theory, you may use many types of animals but we have limited the use to a dog, almost exclusively a German Shepherd. ADVANTAGES OF USING DOGS AS BARRIERS: 1) Their sense of smell and hearing are much more developed than in humans. 2) They have an incorruptible character. 3) They are loyal. 4) They are plunderers by instinct, their qualities as guards are natural in him, and take precedence over their own welfare. 5) The man-dog team is the most effective method in the use of dogs as guards. 6) You may place dogs in open areas where it is necessary to limit movement. DISADVANTAGES: 1) They lose their effectiveness if they work where there are many people. 287
LN324-91 2) You could not use it near a road, since the traffic noise will distract him and cause him to lose concentration and effectiveness. 3) They must work at least 75 to 100 yards from a road, or from areas with frequent traffic. e. ENERGY BARRIERS: 1) An energy barrier is the use of mechanical, electric, or electronic energy to prevent or alert about an intruder-s entry. 2) Two important energy barriers are: a) Protective illumination systems b) Protective alarm systems 3) PROTECTIVE ILLUMINATION: a) It is used to increase the guards- field of vision, providing a visual field during the night in areas of poor or any natural light. b) DISTINCTION OF SILHOUETTES: (1) When the possible intruder uses dark clothes, he may hide behind the structure-s shadows. To aid the guard in distinguishing these silhouettes you may: (a) Direct additional illumination to the structure-s grounds and walls. (b) You may paint stripes or angles on the walls, fences and structures, that will allow the guard to detect movement. c) ILLUMINATION OF ENTRANCES: This is a special task since: (1) Provides illumination to: (a) Inspection of passes (b) Inspection of Identification cards or badges 288
LN324-91 (c) Inspection of vehicles (d) Inspections of trucks and loads (e) Illumination of the area surrounding the sentry box (2) There must be illumination in an area approximately 50 feet around the sentry box, 25 feet as a minimum. (3) The area inside the sentry box must be kept as dark as possible. In that manner the guard could see the persons, and the persons could not see who is the guard, nor how many guards there are inside the sentry box. d) SENTRY TOWERS: (1) The sentry towers must not be over 1,000 feet of distance from one another. The reason for this is that a person WITH normal vision only has a field of vision of 500 feet in which he could distinguish silhouettes. (2) The sentry towers must have flood lights, in addition of providing illumination, they must also blind and surprise the intruder, disorganizing therefore the possible attack plan. e) ILLUMINATION OF VITAL AREAS: (1) Examples of vital areas: (a) Communications (b) Warfare equipment (c) Water tanks (d) Energy plant (2) The vital areas that are considered vulnerable from a large distance must be kept dark. (3) Vital areas that are vulnerable at short distance must be kept well illuminated. (4) Other areas that must be kept well illuminated are: (a) Inactive areas: where there is no night work, areas that provide hiding places to intruders. 289
LN324-91 (b) Buildings: Illumination around the buildings is necessary to avoid that intruders come in through low windows on the first floor. (c) Parking area: In addition to providing a good hiding place to the intruder, is a good area for assault to employees of the installation. f) EMERGENCY ILLUMINATION: (1) There must be an independent-backup system of illumination when the normal energy source is interrupted. This may be: (a) A system of floodlights that operate on batteries. (b) A generator (c) A central battery system 5. PERSONNEL CONTROL AND IDENTIFICATION: a. IDENTIFICATION: 1) The most effective manner will be if the guards could personally recognize all the persons authorized to enter the installation. 2) A modified identification system could be used only at the military installations where only military personnel work. A commander could take his unit to the door and become responsible for them. 3) The artificial identification is the most widely used at present. The authorized personnel receives passes or cards where access to a determined installation or activity is authorized. These could be falsified and therefore they must be laminated and prepared WITH a complex background so as to make falsifying difficult. 4) They must have the photograph of the person, name, and date of birth, height, weight, hair color, color of eyes, sex, name of the installation, rank, title, and signature of the authorizing official. 5) When artificial identification is used, this must execute a rigid control over the devices used. 290
LN324-91 b. USING THE ARTIFICIAL IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM: 1) The employee receives a card or identification that they keep. When they enter the installation they show the card and come in. This system is used widely but it has its flaws. These are the loss of cards and possible falsifications. 2) In another system, two cards WITH the same information is prepared. a) When the person comes to the installation, they give the card that he keeps and he receives another one to be used inside the installation. If one of the two has been altered, the guard could detect the change when he has the two cards in his hands. 6. CONTROL OF VISITING PERSONS: a. The control over the visitors depends in how sensitive the installation is. b. Possible visitor's controls: 1) Escorts 2) Programmed visits 3) Visitor's registry 4) Passes for visitors 7. CONTROL OF PACKAGES: a. You must provide for the search of packages that come in or that are taken out of an installation. b. If necessary, you may prohibit carrying packages to the installation all together. 8. PHOTOGRAPHS: a. You must be careful in the areas where classified material is kept to avoid the taking of non-authorized photographs. b. Generally, only photographers authorized by the information office, or by the commander of the installation could carry cameras to the sensitive areas. 9. VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION CONTROL: a. Jointly WITH the personnel control, there must be a control of vehicles. 291
LN324-91 b. An identification system which identifies the vehicles WITH authorized access to the installation. c. It is required that the entire personnel registers their vehicles WITH the guard's general headquarters. d. When the registry is done, you may give the vehicle's owner a decal that must be placed in the vehicle's windshield. e. The declass must be renewed annually and must be rigidly controlled. 10. FIRE-FIGHTING INSTALLATIONS: a. Fire is one of the most effective tools used by the sabotage teams. b. Without knowing the cause, a fire could neutralize an installation completely. c. The security program must include the adequate installations to fight fires and a program for the prevention of fires. d. COMPONENTS OF A FIRE-FIGHTING INSTALLATION: 1) PERSONNEL: They may civilians or military men. They must be trained adequately in combat and fire prevention. 2) ORGANIZATION: It is a function of engineers. The engineer of an installation serves as commander of the firemen's corps. 3) THE EQUIPMENT: The firemen's ability depends upon the equipment they have. To determine the type of equipment necessary, you must understand the classification of the fires: a) CLASS A: Are those which consist of common fuels such as wood, paper, and similar materials. Water is the best element to fight such type of fire. b) CLASS B: Are those of the oil or gas type. Water does not work to put out this type, since water spreads this type of fire. Carbon dioxide is appropriately used to put out this type of fires. Foam extinguishers are recommended. 292
LN324-91 4) ALARMS: There are two types of alarms: Central and local. They could be automatic and manual. Their placement serves to alert the fire fighters corps and the personnel at the same time. 5) RESERVE FORCES: It is advisable to have a reserve force that consists of personnel trained in the same manner as the main corps. 6) PREVENTION OF FIRES: The entire personnel in an installation has the obligation to participate in a prevention program. You must have a training program so that everyone is conscious of their responsibilities. 7) PLANS IN CASE OF FIRES: You must prepare specific instructions for the entire personnel. You assign specific responsibilities to the entire personnel that is present at the time the fire breaks out. 11. COMMUNICATIONS: a. A security program must include provisions about communications security. b. The communications center must be designed as a restricted area and must enforce strict control over the access to this area. c. The communications center must be located in an area or building that could be easily defended, WITH some type of protection against aerial attacks. d. The maintenance and service personnel have a very sensitive position and therefore must have the security authorization according to the sensitivity of the installation. 12. GENERAL SERVICES: a. There must be provisions that guarantee that electricity and water services are protected adequately and there are emergency sources available: 1) ELECTRICITY: If an installation has its own energy plant this must be located in a restricted area and only authorized personnel should be allowed inside. A barricade system must be built to prevent the entrance of non- authorized personnel. 293
LN324-91 2) WATER: If the installation has its own fire fighting station, you must give the same protection as to the energy plant. You must protect the water from contaminations. SUMMARY: We have discussed some of the measures that could apply in an installation or activity to prevent non-authorized access to these. You must not suppose that these are the only available measures when making a recommendation to a commander during the course of an inspection or carrying out a study of physical security. The minimum rules that have been presented are preferred but are not always possible. Frequently, you may improvise to compensate for the lack of security that results when the minimum rules are not carried out. Keep in mind that there is not such thing as an impenetrable barrier. One must not depend solely upon natural and structural barriers. The key to the good functioning of any security system is personal efficiency. The barriers that are used only serve to improve the effectiveness of the guards and make the detection of intruders more possible. The physical security is not the only answer to the commander's problems in regards to security. Unless he has a good personnel security program and a good information security program he would not be successful in his intents to safeguard the information and the classified material of his installation. If there is a flaw in the security system, the intruder takes the necessary key to neutralize the whole security program. Remember this when analyzing an installation during a security inspection. 294

Annex A

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